Medical Policy: 07.01.51 

Original Effective Date: August 2010 

Reviewed: June 2017 

Revised: June 2017 

 

Benefit Application:

Benefit determinations are based on the applicable contract language in effect at the time the services were rendered. Exclusions, limitations or exceptions may apply. Benefits may vary based on contract, and individual member benefits must be verified. Wellmark determines medical necessity only if the benefit exists and no contract exclusions are applicable. This medical policy may not apply to FEP. Benefits are determined by the Federal Employee Program.

 

This Medical Policy document describes the status of medical technology at the time the document was developed. Since that time, new technology may have emerged or new medical literature may have been published. This Medical Policy will be reviewed regularly and be updated as scientific and medical literature becomes available.

 

Description:

Various treatments have been advocated for headaches and occipital neuralgia. Oral analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents are effective for some patients, but there is a population of patients who do not experience pain relief with these medications. For those patients who are not responsive to initial therapies other treatment modalities to include occipital nerve stimulation have been investigated in the treatment of these conditions.

 

Occipital nerve stimulation is a form of neuromodulation that is reversible and adjustable and can be tailored to an individual’s specific needs. However, the mechanisms of action for the paresthesia patterns and pain relief obtained from an occipital nerve stimulation is not completely understood.

 

The device consists of a subcutaneously implanted pulse generator (in the chest wall or abdomen) attached to extension leads that are tunneled to join electrodes placed across one or both occipital nerves at the base of the skull. Continuous or intermittent stimulation may be used.

 

Prior to permanent implantation, a trial is performed in which leads are placed under the skin and are connected to an external battery. The trial period is typically 4-7 days and the patient keeps a detailed pain diary. A permanent device is considered only if the patient reports significant improvements in pain and quality of life. 

 

There are four types of headache:

  •  vascular
  •  muscle contraction (tension)
  •  traction
  •  inflammatory

Primary (not the result of another condition) chronic headache is defined as headache occurring more than 15 days of the month for at least 3 months. An estimated 45 million Americans experience chronic headaches. For at least half of these people, the problem is severe and sometimes disabling.

 

Migraine

Migraine is the most common type of vascular headache. Migraine headaches are usually characterized by severe pain on one or both sides of the head, an upset stomach, and, at times, disturbed vision. One- year prevalence of migraine ranges from 6%–15% in adult geno typical men and from 14%–35% in adult geno typical women. Migraine headaches may last a day or more and can strike as often as several times a week or as rarely as once every few years. Drug therapy for migraine is often combined with behavioral therapy, physical therapy, lifestyle modification (good sleep hygiene, routine meal schedules, regular exercise), and avoidance of migraine triggers. Sumatriptan is commonly used for relief of symptoms. Drugs used to prevent migraine include amitriptyline, propranolol and other beta-blockers, topiramate and other antiepileptic drugs, and verapamil.

 

Two systematic reviews of the literature on occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) were published in 2015. Both included RCTs and observational studies. The trial by Chen et al identified 5 RCTs and 7 case series with at least 10 patients. Three of the RCTs were industry-sponsored, multicenter, parallel-group trials and 2 were single-center crossover trials. All 5 included a sham control group and 1 trial also included a medication management group. Risk of bias was judged to be high or unclear for all trials. Meta-analyses were performed on 2 outcomes. A pooled analysis of 2 trials did not find a significant difference in response rates between active and sham stimulation (relative risk [RR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 8.55; p=0.31) and a pooled analysis of 3 trials showed a significantly greater reduction in the number of days with prolonged moderate-to-severe headache (mean difference, 2.59; 95% CI, 0.91 to 4.27; p=0.003).

 

In their systematic review, Yang et al (2015) identified the same 5 RCTs as Chen. The Yang review only included studies conducted with patients with migraine of at least 6 months in duration who did not respond to oral medications. In addition to the RCTs, 5 case series met the inclusion criteria. Yang did not pool study findings. The definition of response rate varied across studies and could include frequency and/or severity of headaches. Response rates in 3 case series with self-reported efficacy were 100% in each, and response rates in the other 2 series were 50% and 89%, respectively. Complication rates in the series ranged from 40% to 100%. Reviewers noted that the case series were subject to biases (e.g, inability to control for the placebo effect), that RCT evidence was limited, and that complication rates were high. The most common complications were lead migration (21% of patients) and infection (7% of patients).

 

The 2 parallel-group RCTs published as full-text journal articles are detailed next. The Occipital Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Intractable Chronic Migraine Headache (ONSTIM) trial, was a multicenter, randomized feasibility study (2011) of ONS for treatment of intractable chronic migraine headache refractory to preventive medical management. The trial evaluated study design and had no primary end point. One hundred ten patients were enrolled, and patients who had a positive response to a short-acting occipital nerve block were randomized as follows: 33 to adjustable stimulation, 17 to preset stimulation of 1 min/d, and 17 to medical management. At the 3-month evaluation, the response rate (percentage of patients who achieve ≥50% reduction in number of headache days per month or a ≥3-point reduction in average overall pain intensity vs baseline) was 39% in the adjustable stimulation group, 6% in the preset stimulation group, and 0% in the medical management group. Twelve (24%) of 51 subjects who had successful ONS device implantation experienced lead migration and 3 (6%) of the 51 subjects were hospitalized for adverse events (infection, lead migration, nausea). Study limitations included a short observation period and ineffective blinding of subjects and investigators to treatment groups.

 

Summary


For individuals who have migraine headaches refractory to medical management who receive occipital nerve stimulation, the evidence includes randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systemic reviews of RCTs, and observational studies. The available studies are limited and had significant methodological flaws, making it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the efficacy of occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of migraine headaches. There are no well-designed randomized controlled studies in the medical literature comparing occipital nerve stimulation to established treatment options. Further RCTs are needed to include studies on larger patient populations with longer follow-up to establish the benefits of occipital nerve stimulation for this condition. Currently, there are no occipital nerve stimulation devices approved or cleared for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of headaches. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of occipital nerve stimulation on net health outcomes in the treatment of migraine headaches.

 

Hemicrania continua

Hemicrania continua causes moderate pain with occasional severe pain on only one side of the head. At least one of the following symptoms must also occur; conjunctival injection and/or lacrimation, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhea, or ptosis and/or miosis. Headache occurs daily and is continuous with no pain-free periods. Hemicrania continua occurs mainly in geno typical women, and its true prevalence is not known. Indomethacin usually provides rapid relief of symptoms. Other NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, celecoxib, and naproxen, can provide some relief from symptoms. Amitriptyline and other tricyclic antidepressants are effective in some patients.

 

The evidence on occipital nerve stimulation for hemicranias continua is limited and consists of a small crossover study by Burns et al (2008) who reported on the efficacy of continuous unilateral ONS in 6 patients. Pain on a 10-point scale was recorded hourly in patient diaries, and the Migraine Disability Assessment was administered at each follow-up visit. Four of 6 patients reported substantially less pain (range, 80%-95% less), 1 reported 30% less pain, and 1 reported 20% worse pain. Adverse events were mild and associated with transient overstimulation.

 

Cluster headache

Cluster headache occurs in cyclical patterns or clusters of severe or very severe unilateral orbital or supraorbital and/or temporal pain. The headache is accompanied by at least one of the following autonomic symptoms: ptosis (drooping eyelid), conjunctival infection, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, and, less commonly, facial blushing, swelling, or sweating. Bouts of one headache every other day to 8 attacks per day may last from weeks to months, usually followed by remission periods when the headache attacks stop completely. The pattern varies from one person to another, but most people have one or two cluster periods a year. During remission, no headaches occur for months, and sometimes even years. The intense pain is caused by the dilation of blood vessels, which creates pressure on the trigeminal nerve. While this process is the immediate cause of the pain, the etiology is not fully understood. It is more common in geno typical men than in geno typical women. One-year prevalence is estimated to be 0.5 to 1.0/1,000. Management of cluster headache consists of abortive and preventive treatment. Abortive treatments include subcutaneous injection or intranasal sumatriptan or topical anesthetics sprayed into the nasal cavity. Some patients respond to rapidly inhaled pure oxygen. A variety of other pharmacologic and behavioral methods of aborting and preventing attacks have been reported with wide variation in patient response.

 

Several case series assessing cluster headache were identified, with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 67 patients. In 2016, Fontaine et al published a prospective case series of 67 patients with chronic cluster headache (CCH).  Data were taken from a French database on ONS for treating refractory headache disorders. Sixty-seven patients with CCH were included in the database; data were available for 52 (78%) patients at 3 months and 44 (66%) patients at 12 months. The primary outcome was a composite score that incorporated patient’s global impression of change, reduction in the frequency of headache attacks, and changes in prophylactic medications. For patients with available data, at 3 months, 34 (65.4%) of 52 were considered to be excellent responders, 9 (17.3%) of 52 were mild responders, and 9 (17.3%) of 52 were non-responders. At 12 months, 22 (48%) of 44 were excellent responders, 10 (21.7%) of 44 were mild responders, and 15 (32.6%) of 44 were non-responders. The series had a large amount of missing data at follow-up.

 

In 2016, Leone et al published a case series of ONS in 35 patients with CCH. This series had the longest follow-up (median, 6.1 years; range, 1.6-10.7 years). Selection criteria included daily or almost daily cluster headache attacks in the past year and resistance of prophylactic drugs. Twenty (66.7%) of the 30 patients in the per protocol analysis had 50% or more reduction in headache number per day and were considered responders. In 12 (40%) patients, improvement was considered stable (i.e., ≤3 headache attacks per month). Limitations of the series reporting on cluster headaches included lack of blinding and comparison groups.

 

Summary


For individuals with non-migraine headaches (e.g. hemicranias continua, cluster headaches) who receive occipital nerve stimulation, the evidence includes case series and a small crossover study. Many of the case series had small sample sizes. Although the case series tended to find that substantial number of patients improved after occipital nerve stimulation, these studies lacked blinding and comparison groups. Further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to compare outcomes between occipital nerve stimulation and comparators (e.g. to control for a potential placebo effect). Currently, there are no occipital nerve stimulation devices approved or cleared for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of headaches. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of occipital nerve stimulation on net health outcomes for treating these conditions.

 

Occipital Neuralgia

Pain in the occipital-cervical area can originate from any structure in the posterior scalp and neck: muscles, joints, ligaments, connective tissue, blood vessels and of course nerves. If the occipital nerves are the cause, then the syndrome is called occipital neuralgia. Neuralgia is a form of neuropathic pain.

 

The occipital nerves are two paired nerves (right and left) that supply sensation to the posterior scalp, from the crown of the head, down to the top portion of the neck. The occipital nerves originate from posterior branches of the C2 nerve root. The nerve courses just beneath the arch of the C1 vertebrae, then in close proximity to vertebral venous structures, the adjacent antlantoaxial ligament and cervical facet joint. It passes through the semispinalis muscle, and then through the region where the trapezius muscle attaches to the occipital bone. From there, branches of the nerve fan out to innervate the posterior scalp.

 

Occipital neuralgia can be considered a primary headache disorder, or a secondary headache disorder. The International Headache Society defines primary occipital neuralgia as “a paroxysmal jabbing pain in the distribution of the greater or lesser occipital nerves or of the third occipital nerve, sometimes accompanied by diminished sensation or dysaesthesia in the affected area. It is commonly associated with tenderness over the nerve concerned.” To meet criteria for occipital neuralgia the pain must meet the following criteria:

  • Paroxysmal stabbing pain, with or without persistent aching between paroxysms, in the distribution(s) of the greater, lesser and/or third occipital nerves.
  • Tenderness over the affected nerve.
  • Pain is eased temporarily by local anesthetic block of the nerve.

Occipital nerve block (usually a mixture of local anesthetic plus a glucocorticoid) is usually the treatment of choice for occipital neuralgia. Some other modalities that may be used include: physical therapy; acupuncture; massage therapy; chiropractic treatments; anti-inflammatory medications; muscle relaxants; anticonvulsants; anti-depressants; other percutaneous blocks such as facet joint blocks, medical branch blocks and transforamenal epidural steroid injections; radiofrequency ablation and occipital nerve stimulation (ONS).  Occipital nerve stimulation has been investigated in selected cases of severe occipital neuralgia unresponsive to less invasive measures.  A 2015 systemic review by Sweet et. al. identified 9 small case series (< 15 patients each) assessing the efficacy of occipital nerve stimulation for treating medically refractory occipital neuralgia.   Reviewers did not pool study findings.  Based on this information it is difficult to draw conclusions about the impact of occipital nerve stimulation on occipital neuralgia due to the lack of randomized controlled trials (RTCs) or other controlled studies.

 

Summary


For individuals with occipital neuralgia who receive occipital nerve stimulation the evidence includes case series with small sample sizes. There are no well-designed randomized controlled studies in the medical literature comparing occipital nerve stimulation to established treatment options. Further randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are needed to include larger patient populations with longer follow-up to establish the benefits of occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of this condition. Currently, there are no occipital nerve stimulation devices approved or cleared for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of occipital neuralgia. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of occipital nerve stimulation on net health outcomes for the treatment of occipital neuralgia.

 

Other Indications

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder that is often difficult to treat. The treatment of fibromyalgia is directed at reducing the major symptoms of this disorder, including chronic widespread pain, fatigue, insomnia and cognitive dysfunction. Interventions include a number of non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies that are often provided in combination. Many patients experience continued symptoms despite initial non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies.  Occipital nerve stimulation has been studied for the treatment of fibromyalgia in adults not responsive to initial therapies. Several trials have evaluated the effect of occipital nerve stimulation, while some of the results were positive, the trials were small and not well-controlled. 

 

Summary

For individuals with fibromyalgia who receive occipital nerve stimulation the available studies are limited making it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the efficacy of occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of fibromyalgia. There are no well-designed randomized controlled studies in the medical literature comparing occipital nerve stimulation to established treatment options. Further randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are needed to include larger patient populations with longer follow-up to establish the benefits of occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment for this condition. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of occipital nerve stimulation on net health outcomes for the treatment of fibromyalgia.   

 

 

Practice Guidelines and Position Statements:

American Academy of Neurology (AAN)


2012 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) evidence based guideline updated for NSAIDs and other complementary treatments for episodic migraine prevention in adults does not mention local injection therapies, ablative treatments, electrical stimulation or neurosurgeries as complimentary treatments for migraines.   

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

2013 Guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) states: "That the evidence on occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) for intractable chronic migraine shows some efficacy in the short term but there is very little evidence about long term outcomes. With regard to safety, there is a risk of complications, needing further surgery. Therefore, this procedure should only be used with special arrangements for clinical governance, consent and audit or research."

 

Congress of Neurological Surgeons


2015 evidence based guidelines from the Congress of Neurological Surgeons stated: “the use of occipital nerve stimulation is a treatment of option for patients with medically refractory occipital neuralgia.” The statement had a level III recommendation based on a systemic review of the literature that only identified case series.

Level III recommendation: evidence from case series, comparative studies with historical controls, case reports, and expert opinion, as well as significantly flawed, controlled trials.

 

Regulatory Status

Currently, there are no occipital nerve stimulation devices approved or cleared for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of headache or occipital neuralgia.

 

Prior Approval:

 

Not applicable

 

Policy:

Related Policies:

  • Vagus Nerve Stimulation 07.01.60
  • Deep Brain Stimulation 07.01.59
  • Sacral Nerve Stimulation/Neuromodulation 08.01.21
  • Gastric Electrical Stimulation 07.01.62

Occipital nerve stimulation is considered investigational for all indications.

 

Based on peer reviewed medical literature the evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) on net health outcomes for any indication.s  The available studies are limited and had significant methodological flaws, making it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the efficacy of occipital nerve stimulation. There are no well-designed randomized controlled studies in the medical literature comparing occipital nerve stimulation to established treatment options.  Further randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with greater number of patients and longer follow up are needed.  Therefore, the use of occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is considered investigational for all indications.   

 

Procedure Codes and Billing Guidelines:

  • To report provider services, use appropriate CPT* codes, Modifiers, Alpha Numeric (HCPCS level 2) codes, Revenue codes, and/or diagnosis codes.
  • There is no specific code for this procedure. The following CPT codes may be used.
  • 61885 Insertion or replacement of cranial neurostimulator pulse generator or receiver, direct or inductive coupling; with connection to a single electrode array
  • 61886 Insertion or replacement of cranial neurostimulator pulse generator or receiver, direct or inductive coupling; with connection to 2 or more electrode arrays
  • 64553 Percutaneous implantation of neurostimulator electrodes; cranial nerve
  • 64555 Percutaneous implantation of neurostimulator electrodes; peripheral nerve (excludes sacral nerve)
  • 64568 Incision for implantation of cranial nerve (eg, vagus nerve) neurostimulator electrode array and pulse generator
  • 64569 Revision or replacement of cranial nerve (eg vagus nerve) neurostimulator electrode array, including connection to existing pulse generator
  • 64575 Incision for implantation of neurostimulator electrodes; peripheral nerve (excludes sacral nerve)
  • 64590 Insertion or replacement of peripheral or gastric neurostimulator pulse generator or receiver, direct or inductive coupling
  • 64595 Revision or removal of peripheral or gastric neurostimulator pulse generator or receiver
  • 64999 unlisted procedure, nervous system
  • C1767 Generator neurostimulator (implantable) non-rechargeable
  • C1778 Lead, neurostimulator
  • C1787 Patient programmer, neurostimulator
  • C1816 Receiver and/or transmitter neurostimulator (implantable)
  • C1820 Generator, neurostimulator (implantable), non high-frequency with rechargeable battery and charging system
  • C1822 Generator, neurostimulator (implantable), high frequency, with rechargeable battery and charging system
  • C1897 Lead neurostimulator test kit (implantable)
  • L8679 Implantable neurostimulator, pulse generator any type
  • L8680 Implantable neurostimulator electrode, each
  • L8681 Patient programmer (external) for use with implantable programmable neurostimulator pulse generator, replacement only
  • L8682 Implantable neurostimulator radiofrequency receiver
  • L8683 Radiofrequency transmitter (external) for use with implantable neurostimulator radiofrequency receiver
  • L8685 Implantable neurostimulator pulse generator, single array, rechargeable includes extension
  • L8686 Implantable neurostimulator pulse generator, single array, nonrechargeable, includes extension
  • L8687 Implantable neurostimulator pulse generator, dual array, rechargeable, includes extension
  • L8688 Implantable neurostimulator pulse generator, dual array, nonrechargeable, includes extension
  • L8689 External recharging system for battery (internal)for use with implantable neurostimulator, replacement only

 

Selected References:

  • Trentman TL, Rosenfeld DM, Vargas BB et al. Greater occipital nerve stimulation via the Bion Microstimulatro; implantation technique and stimulation parameters Clinical Trial: NCT00205894. Pain Physician 2009; 12(3):621-8.
  • Schwedt TJ, Dodick DW, Trentman TL et al. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic headache--long-term safety and efficacy. Cephalalgia 2007; 27(2):153-7.
  • Schwedt TJ, Dodick DW, Trentman TL et al. Response to occipital nerve block is not useful in predicting efficacy of occipital nerve stimulation. Cephalalgia 2007; 27(3):271-4.
  • Burns B, Watkins L, Goadsby P. Treatment of intractable chronic cluster headache by occipital nerve stimulation in 14 patients. Neurology 2009; 72(4):341-5.
  • Burns B, Watkins L, Goadsby P. Treatment of hemicrania continua by occipital nerve stimulation with a bion device: long-term follow-up of a crossover study. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7(11):1001-12.
  • Reed KL, Black SB, Bant CJ 2 nd et al. Combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation for the treatment of chronic migraine headaches: initial experience. Cephalalgia 2009 Sep 3 [Epub ahead of print].
  • Saper JR, Dodick DW, Silberstein SD, et al. Occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable chronic migraine headache: ONSTIM feasibility study. Cephalalgia. 2011 Feb;31(3):271-85.
  • Silberstein SD. Practice parameter: evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2000 Sep 26;55(6):754-62.
  • ECRI. Implantable Peripheral Nerve Stimulation Devices for Treating Chronic Pain. Plymouth Meeting (PA): Health Technology Assessment Information Service. February 2012. [Hotline Response].
  • Silberstein SD, Dodick DW, Saper J, et al. Safety and efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves for the management of chronic migraine: Results from a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, controlled study. Cephalalgia. 2012 Oct3. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Serra G & Marchioretto F. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic migraine: a randomized trial. Pain Physician. 2012 May-Jun;15(3):245-53
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Issued April 2013: Occipital Nerve Stimulation for Intractable Chronic Migraine
  • Giorgil Lambru and Manjit S. Matharu. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders, Occipital Nerve Stimulation in Primary Headache Syndromes. Ther Adv Neural Disord, 2012 5[1] 57-67.
  • American Pain Society, Management of Acute Pain and Chronic Noncancer Pain.
  • American Headache Society, Surgical Treatment for Headache
  • Medscape, Occipital Nerve Stimulation Updated October 14, 2015
  • UpToDate. Chronic Migraine. Ivan Garza, M.D., Todd J. Schwedt, M.D., MSCI. Topic last updated: March 13, 2017
  • UpToDate. Occipital Neuralgia. Ivan Garza M.D., Topic last updated January 29, 2017.
  • UpToDate. Overview of Chronic Daily Headache. Ivan Garza, M.D., Todd J. Schwedt M.D., MSCI. Topic last updated October 26, 2016.
  • UpToDate. Treatment of Fibromyalgia in Adults not Responsive to Initial Therapies. Don L. Goldenberg M.D.. Topic last updated January 2, 2016.
  • Chen YF, Bramley G, Unwin G, et al. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic migraine--a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0116786. PMID 25793740
  • Yang Y, Song M, Fan Y, et al. Occipital Nerve Stimulation for Migraine: A Systematic Review. Pain Pract. Apr 11 2015. PMID 25865962
  • Silberstein SD, Dodick DW, Saper J, et al. Safety and efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves for the management of chronic migraine: results from a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, controlled study. Cephalalgia. Dec 2012;32(16):1165-1179. PMID 23034698
  • Dodick DW, Silberstein SD, Reed KL, et al. Safety and efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves for the management of chronic migraine: Long-term results from a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, controlled study. Cephalalgia. Apr 2015;35(4):344-358. PMID 25078718
  • Mueller OM, Gaul C, Katsarava Z, et al. Occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic cluster headache - lessons learned from 18 months experience. Cen Eur Neurosurg. May 2011;72(2):84-89. PMID 21448856
  • Magis D, Gerardy PY, Remacle JM, et al. Sustained effectiveness of occipital nerve stimulation in drug-resistant chronic cluster headache. Headache. Sep 2011;51(8):1191-1201. PMID 21848953
  • Vadivelu S, Bolognese P, Milhorat TH, et al. Occipital nerve stimulation for refractory headache in the Chiari malformation population. Neurosurgery. Jun 2012;70(6):1430-1436; discussion 1436-1437. PMID 22418582
  • Sweet JA, Mitchell LS, Narouze S, et al. Occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of patients with medically refractory occipital neuralgia: Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline. Neurosurgery. Sep 2015;77(3):332-341. PMID 26125672
  • UpToDate. Short Lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform Headache Attacks: Treatment. Manjit S. Matharu M.D., Anna S. Cohen M.D., Topic last updated March 23, 2017.
  • UpToDate. Hemicrania Continua. Ivan Garza M.D., Todd J. Schwedt M.D., MSCI. Topic last updated March 23, 2017.
  • UpToDate. Cluster Headache: Treatment and Prognosis. Anne May M.D. Topic last updated March 15, 2017.
  • Fontaine D, Blond S, Lucas C, et. al. Occipital nerve stimulation improves the quality of life in medically intractable chronic cluster headache: Results of a observational prospective study. Cephalalgia Oct 03 2016. PMID 27697849
  • Leone M, Proietti Cecchini A, Messian G, et. al. Long-term occipital nerve stimulation for drug resistant chronic cluster headache. Cephalalgia June 01 2016. PMID 27250232
  • Miller S, Watkins L, Matharu M. Treatment of intractable chronic cluster headache by occipital nerve stimulation: a cohort of 51 patients. Eur J Neurol. Feb 2017;24(2):381-390. PMID 27995704    
  • Siberstein SD, Holland S, Freitag F, et. al. Evidence based guideline updated: NSAIDs and other complementary treatments for episodic migraine prevention in adults. American Academy of Neurology 78 April 24, 2012
  • International Headache Society (HIS) The International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd Edition. Cephalagia 2013 33(9) 629-808.

 

Policy History:

  • June 2017 - Annual review, Policy revised
  • June 2016 - Annual review, Policy renewed
  • July 2015 - Annual review, Policy revised
  • February 2015 - Policy revised
  • August 2014 - Annual review, Policy revised
  • September 2013 - Annual review, Policy renewed
  • October 2012 - Annual review, Policy renewed
  • October 2011 - Annual review, Policy renewed
  • August 2010 - New policy, Policy implemented

Wellmark medical policies address the complex issue of technology assessment of new and emerging treatments, devices, drugs, etc.   They are developed to assist in administering plan benefits and constitute neither offers of coverage nor medical advice. Wellmark medical policies contain only a partial, general description of plan or program benefits and do not constitute a contract. Wellmark does not provide health care services and, therefore, cannot guarantee any results or outcomes. Participating providers are independent contractors in private practice and are neither employees nor agents of Wellmark or its affiliates. Treating providers are solely responsible for medical advice and treatment of members. Our medical policies may be updated and therefore are subject to change without notice.

 

*CPT® is a registered trademark of the American Medical Association.