Addiction Medicine: The branch of medicine dealing with addiction.
Allergy and immunology: The branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with the evaluation, physical, and laboratory diagnosis, and management of disorders potentially involving the immune system. Examples of such conditions include asthma; anaphylaxis; rhinitis; eczema; urticaria; adverse reactions to drugs, foods, and insect stings; immune deficiency diseases (both acquired and congenital); defects in host defense; and problems related to autoimmune disease, organ transplantation, or malignancies of the immune system.
Anesthesiology: The branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with providing pain relief and maintenance, or restoration, of a stable condition during and immediately following an operation or an obstetric or diagnostic procedure. Two subspecialties of anesthesiology are critical care medicine and pain management.
Anesthesiology Critical Care: Critical Care - A medical subspecialty primarily involved with all aspects of management of the critically ill patient in an intensive (special) care unit. See Anesthesiology.
Audiologists - Audiologists work with people who have hearing, balance, and related ear problems.
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Science of diagnosing and treating the electrical activities of the heart.
Cardiology – Interventional: Catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases.
Cardiovascular Medicine: The branch of medicine and subspecialty of internal medicine dealing with diseases of the heart and blood vessels and management of complex cardiac conditions, such as heart attacks and life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms.
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNA): A licensed registered nurse who has met the certification requirements of the Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists and is qualified by education and experience to administer anesthesia.
Chiropractors: Individuals who are qualified by education and authorized by law to practice chiropractic. Chiropractic medicine is based on the principles that the nervous system largely determines the state of health and that disease results from nervous system malfunctioning. Treatment consists primarily of the adjustment or manipulation of parts of the body, especially the spinal column, and radiography is used for diagnosis only. Operations, drugs, and immunizations are usually rejected as violations of the human body.
Clinical Nurse Specialist: Advanced Practice Nurse who are clinical experts and specialized in the area of nursing practice and in the delivery of evidence-based nursing interventions.
Dermatology (Skin): The branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric and adult patients with benign and malignant disorders of the skin, mouth, external genitalia, hair and nails. Dermatopathology and immunodermatology are two subspecialties of dermatology.
Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism:
Family Practice: The branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide variety of ailments in patients of all ages. Geriatric medicine and sports medicine are two subspecialties of family practice.
Gastroenterology (Digestion-Liver): The branch of medicine and subspecialty of internal medicine dealing with the digestive organs, including the stomach, bowel, liver and gallbladder, and disorders, such as abdominal pain, ulcers, diarrhea, cancer and jaundice.
General Practice: The provision of comprehensive medical care as a continuing responsibility regardless of age of the patient or of the condition that may temporarily require the services of a specialist.
Genetics: The science of biological variation.
Geriatrics: The branch of medicine and subspecialty of family practice and internal medicine dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of disorders common to elderly people.
Gynecology: The branch of medicine and specialty dealing with the health care of women, including the function and diseases of the female genital tract. It encompasses both medical and surgical concerns and is usually practiced in combination with obstetrics.
Gynecology/Oncology: The branch of medicine and subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology dealing with the health care of women with gynecologic cancer; for example, ovarian or vulvar cancer.
Hematology: The branch of medicine and subspecialty of internal medicine, pathology, and pediatrics dealing with diseases of the blood, spleen, and lymph glands. The scope of hematology includes disorders such as anemia, clotting conditions, sickle cell disease, hemophilia, leukemia, and lymphoma.
Hospitalist: – A hospital-based general physician who assumes the care of hospitalized patients in the place of patients’ primary care physician.
Hyperbaric Medicine - Hyperbaric medicine, also known as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), is the medical use of oxygen at a level higher than atmospheric pressure, to treat decompression sickness and air embolism.
Infectious Diseases: Diseases caused by pathogenic agents, such as bacteria or virus. The disease may or may not be contagious.
Internal Medicine: The branch and specialty of medicine dealing with the long-term, comprehensive management of both common and complex medical illnesses of adolescents, adults, and the elderly. Subspecialty areas of internal medicine include: adolescent medicine, cardiovascular medicine, clinical cardiac electrophysiology, critical care medicine, diagnostic laboratory immunology, endocrinology, gastroenterology geriatric medicine, hematology, infectious diseases, medical oncology, nephrology, pulmonary diseases, rheumatology, sports medicine, and allergy and immunology.
Internal Medicine Critical Care: Critical Care - A medical subspecialty primarily involved with all aspects of management of the critically ill patient in an intensive (special) care unit. See Internal Medicine.
Marriage and Family Therapists - is a branch of psychotherapy that works with couples and families.
Mental Health Counselors - A specialist who can talk with members and their families about emotional and personal matters.
Nephrology (Kidneys): A subspecialty of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with disorders of the kidney, high blood pressure, fluid and mineral balance, dialysis of body waste when the kidneys do not function, and consultation with surgeons about kidney transplantation.
Neurology (Nervous System): The branch and medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease or impaired function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous system, as well as the blood vessels that relate to these structures. Clinical neurophysiology is a subspecialty of neurology.
Neurology (Nervous System) - Neurology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease or impaired function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous system, as well as the blood vessels that relate to these structures.
Neuropsychology - A psychologist who has completed special training in the neurobiological causes of brain disorders, and who specializes in diagnosing and treating these illnesses using a predominantly medical (as opposed to psychoanalytical) approach.
Neuroradiology - Neuroradiology includes imaging and interventional procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense in adults and children.
Nuclear Cardiology: Use of nuclear imaging techniques in the noninvasive study of cardiovascular disease-eg, myocardial perfusion imaging, planar imaging, photon-emission tomography, infarction imaging.
Nuclear Medicine: The branch and specialty of medicine dealing with the scientific and clinical delivery of diagnostic, therapeutic (exclusive of sealed radium sources), and investigative use of radionuclides for patients. The field of nuclear medicine includes radioimmunoassay; therapy with radioisotopically labeled antibodies; positron emission tomography (PET); singled-proton emission computerized tomography (SPECT); the biologic effects of radiation exposure; the principles of radiation safety and protection; the management of patients who have been exposed to ionizing radiation; special knowledge of the physical sciences encompassing the fundamentals of nuclear physics and nuclear magnetic resonance; the principles and operation of radiation detection and nuclear imaging instrumentation systems; statistics; and the fundamentals of the computer sciences.
Nurse Midwives: A registered nurse who has received special training to examine expectant mothers and perform or assist in routine labor and delivery of normal infants. After a baby's birth, nurse-midwives care for newborns, assist new mothers in learning to care for their infants, and provide interconceptual care (between pregnancies) or family-planning approaches.
Nurse Practitioners: A registered nurse who has completed additional training beyond basic nursing education and who provides primary health care services in accordance with state nurse practice laws or statutes. Tasks performed by nurse practitioners vary with practice requirements mandated by geographic, political, economic, and social factors. Nurse practitioner specialists include, but are not limited to, family nurse practitioners, gerontological nurse practitioners, pediatric nurse practitioners, obstetric-gynecologic nurse practitioners, and school nurse practitioners.
Nursing Facility: Provides continuous skilled nursing services ordered and certified by the attending physician. A registered nurse must supervise services and supplies on a 24-hour basis.
Obstetrics: The branch of medicine dealing with the management of pregnancy, labor, and the post labor recovery period.
Obstetrics/Gyn (Childbirth and Female Reproduction): The branch and specialty of medicine that deals with the management of pregnancy, labor, and the post labor recovery period (obstetrics) and diseases of the female genital tract (gynecology). Subspecialty areas of obstetrics and gynecology include critical care medicine, gynecologic oncology, maternal-fetal medicine, and reproductive endocrinology.
Occupational Medicine: The branch of medicine dealing with the prevention and treatment of disease and injuries occurring at work or in specific occupations.
Occupational Therapists: An allied health professional who provides occupation therapy services including, but not limited to, education and training activities of daily living; the design, fabrication, and application of orthoses (splints); guidance in the selection and use of adaptive equipment; therapeutic activities to enhance functional performance, work readiness, and skills; and consultation concerning the adaptation of physical environments for the handicapped. These services are provided to individuals or groups, to both inpatients and outpatients, and to employers in business and industry. Occupational therapists are one type of allied health professional for which the Committee on Health Education and Accreditation has accredited education programs.
Oncology: The branch of medicine and medical subspecialty of gynecology, internal medicine, and pediatrics, dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cancer.
Ophthalmology (Eye): The branch and specialty of medicine dealing with comprehensive eye and vision care, including diagnosis, monitoring, and medically or surgically treating all eyelid and orbital problems affecting the eye and visual pathways. Vision services, such as prescribing glasses and contact lenses, are included in the area of ophthalmology.
Optometrists: An individual qualified by education and authorized by law to practice optometry. He or she may examine the eyes and vision system for visual defects, diagnose impairments, prescribe corrective lenses, and provide other types of treatment. An optometrist can use drugs for diagnostic purposes and (in most states) prescribe them for therapeutic purposes.
Oral Pathologists: A dentist who specializes in oral pathology. As a diagnostician, an oral pathologist does not necessarily treat the diseases directly, but may provide counsel and guidance to other specialists who do provide treatment.
Oral Surgeons: A dentist specializing in oral and maxillofacial surgery, a branch and specialty of dentistry that includes a broad scope of diagnostic, operative, and related services dealing with diseases, injuries, and defects in the jaw and associated structures.
Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine: The use of the hands to diagnose and treat illness and somatic injury, in conjunction with other conventional medical procedures.
Otolaryngology (Ear-Nose-Throat): The branch and specialty of medicine dealing with medical and surgical treatment of the head and neck, including the ears, nose and throat. Head and neck oncology and facial plastic and reconstructive surgery are areas of expertise. Otology/neurology and pediatric otolaryngology are two subspecialties of otolaryngology.
Pain Management: A subspecialty of anesthesiology dealing with patients experiencing problems with acute or chronic pain in both hospital and ambulatory settings.
Pathology: The branch and specialty of medicine dealing with the essential nature of disease, especially the structural and functional changes in tissues and organs of the body that cause or are caused by disease. These changes are detected by means of information gathered from the microscopic examination of tissue specimens, cells, and body fluids and from clinical laboratory tests on body fluids and secretions. Ten subspecialties of pathology are: blood banking, chemical pathology, cytopathology, dermatopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, immunopathology, medical microbiology, neuropathology, and pediatric pathology.
Pediatric Allergy: The branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with the evaluation, physical and laboratory diagnosis, and management of disorders potentially involving the immune system in infants, children and adolescents.
Pediatric Cardiology: The branch of medicine and subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with the heart and blood vessels and the assessment of cardiovascular disease in children from fetal life to young adulthood.
Pediatric Critical Care: The branch of medicine and subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with all aspects of the management of critically ill pediatric patients in the intensive care unit setting.
Pediatric Developmental Disability: A mental or physical limitation affecting major life activities, arising before adulthood and usually lasting throughout life. Developmental disabilities can be grouped into four major categories: autism, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation.
Pediatric Endocrinology: The branch of medicine and medical subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with infants, children, and adolescents who have diseases that result from an abnormality in the endocrine glands. These disease include, but are not limited to, diabetes mellitus, growth failure, unusual size for age, early or late puberty development, birth defects, the genital region, and disorders of the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands.
Pediatric Developmental-Behavioral - Identification and treatment of disorders of behavior and development throughout childhood and adolescence”
Pediatric Developmental Disability – Pediatric Developmental Disability is identification and treatment of life-long, disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical or combination of mental and physical impairments, manifested prior to age 18.
Pediatric Endocrinology - Pediatric Endocrinologists provide care to infants, children and adolescents who have diseases which result from an abnormality in the endocrine glands (glands that secrete hormones). These diseases include, but are not limited to, diabetes mellitus, growth failure, unusual size for age, early or late pubertal development, birth defects, the genital region, disorders of the thyroid, of the adrenal, and of the pituitary glands.
Pediatric Gastroenterology (Digestion-Liver): The branch of medicine and medical subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with management of disorders of the digestive systems of infants, children, and adolescents.
Pediatric Genetics: The science of biological variation, concerning infants, children, and adolescents.
Pediatric Infectious Disease: The branch of medicine and subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in children.
Pediatric Neonatology: The branch of medicine and medical subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with the care of sick newborn infants.
Pediatric Nephrology: Provides evaluation and treatment for children with kidney disease (blood or protein in urine, kidney stones, bedwetting) or kidney failure.
Pediatric Nephrology (Kidneys): The branch of medicine and subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with the normal and abnormal development and maturation of the kidneys and the urinary tract, the mechanisms by which the kidneys can be damaged, the evaluation and treatment of renal diseases, fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, hypertension, and renal replacement therapy on children from fetal life to young adulthood.
Pediatric Neurology (Nervous system): The branch and medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease or impaired function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous system, as well as the blood vessels that relate to these structures in infants, children, and adolescents
Pediatric Oncology/Hema (Cancer and Blood Diseases): The branch of medicine and subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with blood disorders and cancerous diseases in pediatric patients.
Pediatric Ophthalmology (Eye): The branch and specialty of medicine dealing with comprehensive eye and vision care, including diagnosis, monitoring, and medically or surgically treating all eyelid and orbital problems affecting the eye and visual pathways in infants, children, and adolescents. Vision services, such as prescribing glasses and contact lenses, are included in the area of ophthalmology.
Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine (lung): The branch of medicine and subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with the prevention and treatment of all respiratory diseases affecting infants, children, and young adults.
Pediatric Radiology: The branch of medicine and subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with radioactive substances and radiant energy and with the diagnosis and treatment of disease by means of both ionizing (for example, roentgen rays) and nonionizing (for example, ultrasound) radiations in infants, children and young adults.
Pediatric Rheumatology (Rheumatism and Arthritis): The branch of medicine and subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the various rheumatic disorders in infants, children, and adolescents.
Pediatric Surgery: The branch of medicine and subspecialty of general surgery dealing with management of surgical conditions in premature and newborn infants, children, and adolescents.
Pediatrics (Infant-Child-Adolescent): The branch and specialty of medicine dealing with the physical, emotional, and social health of children from birth to young adulthood. Fourteen subspecialties of pediatrics are: adolescent medicine, pediatric cardiology, pediatric critical care, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology-oncology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric infectious disease neonatal-perinatal medicine, pediatric nephrology, pediatric pulmonology pediatric rheumatology, pediatric sports medicine, and medical toxicology.
Physical Med. And Rehab: The branch and specialty of medicine concerned with diagnosing and treating patients with impairments or disabilities that involve musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiovascular, or other body systems. The primary focus is on maximal restoration of physical, psychological, social, and vocational function and on alleviation of pain. For diagnosis and evaluation, a physiatrist (a specialist in physical medicine) may use techniques of electromyography and electrodiagnosis as supplements to the medical history, physical examination, x-ray elimination, and laboratory examination. In additional to traditional treatment modes, a physiatrist may use therapeutic exercise, prosthetics, orthotics, and mechanical and electrical devices.
Physical Therapist: A health professional specializing in physical therapy, the health care field concerned primarily with the treatment of disorder with physical agents and methods, such as massage, manipulation, therapeutic exercises, cold, heat (including shortwave, microwave, and ultrasonic diathermy), hydrotherapy, electric stimulation, and light to assist in rehabilitating patients and in restoring normal function after an illness or injury.
Physician Assistant: An allied health professional who provides health care services with the direction and supervision of a doctor of medicine or an osteopathic physician, who is ultimately responsible for the decision making required to initiate and sustain therapy. Tasks performed by PAs vary with practice requirements mandated by geographic, political, economic, and social factors, Functions of the PA include performing diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive, and health maintenance services in any setting in which the physician renders care, to allow more effective and focused application of the physician's particular knowledge and skills.
Podiatrist: A health professional qualified by education and authorized by law to practice podiatric medicine, which is the profession of the health sciences dealing with the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases, conditions and malfunctions affecting the human foot and its related for governing structures, by use of medical, surgical, or other means.
Prosthodontists: A dental specialty dealing with the restoration and maintenance of oral function, comfort, appearance, and health by the replacement of missing natural teeth and associated structures with fixed or removable substitutes, such as dentures and bridgework.
Psychiatry: The branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental, addictive, and emotional disorders, such as psychoses, depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse disorders, developmental disabilities, sexual dysfunctions, and adjustment reactions. Addiction psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, clinical neurophysiology, forensic psychiatry, and geriatric psychiatry are psychiatric subspecialties.
Psychiatry - Child: The branch and subspecialty of psychiatry dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental, addictive, and emotional disorders of childhood and adolescence.
Psychologists: Individuals specializing in psychological research, testing, and/or therapy.
Psychologists - Pediatric: Individuals specializing in psychological research, testing, and/or therapy involving infants, children, and adolescents.
Pulmonary Medicine (Lung): A subspecialty of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with diseases of the lungs and airways, such as pneumonia, cancer, pleurisy, asthma, occupational diseases, bronchitis, sleep disorders, emphysema, and other disorders. Pulmonology involves testing lung functions, performing endoscopy of the bronchial airways, and prescribing and monitoring medical assistance to ventilation. Many pulmonary disease experts are also experts in critical care.
Qualified Mental Health Professional: Health care practitioner who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual’s mental health or to treat mental illness.
Radiation Oncology: The branch of radiology that deals with the therapeutic applications of radiant energy and its modifiers and the study and management of disease, especially malignant tumors.
Radiology - Independent: The branch of health sciences and medical specialty dealing with radioactive substances and radiant energy and with the diagnosis and treatment of disease by means of both ionizing (for example, roentgen rays) and nonionizing (for example, ultrasound) radiations. Branches of radiology include therapeutic radiology (radiation oncology) diagnostic radiology, nuclear radiology, and radiological physics, diagnostic radiological physics, and medical nuclear physics.
Rheumatology (Rheumatism and Arthritis): The branch of medicine and subspecialty of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with the management of diseases of joints, muscles, bones, and tendons.
Sleep Medicine - Sleep Medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with disorders of sleep and daytime alertness and the effect of the sleep processes upon other medical disorders.
Social Workers: Individuals qualified by education and authorized by law to practice in the field of social work. Social worker definitions vary between states. The national Association of Social Workers classifies several levels of social work positions with in two groups: pre-professional and professional. A pre-professional may be classified as a social service aide or a social service technician. A professional position is one requiring a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) degree, a Master of Social Work (MSW) degree, or more, and related experience. Social workers practice in a multitude of settings and provide a wide array of services.
Speech Pathologists - Speech pathologists, sometimes called speech therapists, assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent disorders related to speech, language, cognitive-communication, voice, swallowing, and fluency.
Sports Medicine - The Sports Medicine physician is concerned with continuous care in the field of sports medicine, not only the enhancement of health and fitness but the prevention of injury and illness. These physicians focus on areas of medicine such as exercise physiology, biomechanics, nutrition, psychology, physical rehabilitation and epidemiology.
Surgery: Cardio-Thoracic (Chest): The branch and specialty of medicine that encompasses the operative, perioperative, and critical care of patients with pathologic conditions within the chest. Included is the surgical care of coronary artery disease; cancers of the lung, esophagus, and chest wall; abnormalities of the great vessels and heart valves; congenital anomalies; tumors of the mediastinum; and diseases of the diaphragm. The management of the airway and injuries of the chest are also within the scope of cardiothoracic surgery. Synonyms: thoracic surgery, cardiovascular surgery, chest surgery.
Surgery: Colorectal: The branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the intestinal tract, colon, rectum, anal canal, and perianal area by medical and surgical means. Colon and rectal surgery involves management of hemorrhoids, anal fissures (painful tears in the anal lining), and abscesses and fistulae (infections located around the anus and rectum); the use of endoscopy to evaluate and treat problems, such as cancer, polyps (precancerous growth), and inflammatory conditions and performance of abdominal surgical procedures involving inflammatory bowel diseases, such as chronic ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and diverticulitis and cancer.
Surgery: Critical Care - The Critical Care Surgeon manages the critically ill and postoperative patient, particularly the trauma victim, in the emergency department, intensive care unit, trauma unit, burn unit, and other similar settings.
Surgery: General: The branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with the management of a broad spectrum and surgical conditions affecting almost any area of the body. Management includes diagnosis and provision of preoperative, operative, and postoperative care to surgical patients. Surgery also involves management of trauma and critically ill patients. Four subspecialties of surgery are: general vascular surgery, pediatric surgery, surgical critical care, and surgery of the hand.
Surgery: Hand: The subspecialty of general surgery, orthopaedic surgery, and plastic surgery dealing with the investigation, preservation, and restoration by medical, surgical, and rehabilitative means of all structures of the upper extremity directly affecting the form and function of the hand and wrist.
Surgery: Maxillofacial: A branch and subspecialty of dentistry that includes a broad scope of diagnostic, operative, and related services dealing with diseases, injuries, and defects in the jaw and associated structures. Synonym: oral surgery.
Surgery: Neurological: The branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with the operative and nonoperative management (that is, prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, critical care, and rehabilitation) of disorders of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their supporting structures and vascular supply; the evaluation and treatment of pathological processes that modify functions or activity of the nervous system, including the hypophysis; and the operative and non operative management of pain. Synonym: neurosurgery.
Surgery: Orthopedic (Bone and Joint): The branch and specialty of medicine dealing with the preservation, investigation, and restoration of the form and function of the extremities, spine, and associate structures by medical, surgical, and physical means. Orthopedic surgery involves the care of patients whose musculoskeletal problems are present at birth or develop at any time during their lifetime. It also involves diagnosis and treatment of congenital deformities, trauma, infections, tumors, and metabolic disturbances of the musculoskeletal system. Hand surgery is a subspecialty of orthopedic surgery.
Surgery: Oncology - Surgical Oncologists are surgeons who devote the majority of their professional time to the treatment of tumors.
Surgery: Peripheral Vascular: Vascular surgery: the branch of medicine and subspecialty of general surgery dealing with the management of surgical disorders oft eh blood vessels, excluding those immediately adjacent to the heart, lungs or brain.
Surgery: Plastic (Reconstruction) - Plastic Surgery deals with the repair and reconstruction of defects of form and function of the integument and its underlying musculoskeletal system, with emphasis on the craniofacial structures, the oropharynx, the upper and lower limbs, the breast and the external genitalia. It includes aesthetic surgery of structures and undesirable form. Plastic Surgeons are involved with the design and transfer of flaps, the transplantation of tissues, and the replantation of structures. Plastic Surgery includes: excisional surgery, management of complex wounds, use of alloplastic materials, surgical design, surgical diagnosis, surgical and artistic anatomy, surgical pathology, surgical oncology, surgical physiology and pharmacology and bacteriology, biomechanics, embryology, and surgical instrumentation.
Surgery: Vascular - Vascular Surgeons manage the surgical disorders of the blood vessels excluding those immediately adjacent to the heart, lungs or brain.
Surgery: Vitreoretinal - Vitreoretinal surgery is the treatment of disorders related to the retina, vitreous and macula. Ophthalmic surgeons use specialized techniques, instruments and solutions to treat conditions that include retinal detachment, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and uveitis
Urology: The branch and specialty of medicine dealing with the management of benign and malignant medical and surgical disorders of the adrenal gland and of the reproductive and urinary systems and their adjoining structures.