Treatment of Speech and Language Disorders*

» Summary» Procedure Codes
» Description» Selected References
» Prior Approval» Policy History
» Policy
 

Medical Policy: 08.03.05 
Original Effective Date: June 2004 
Reviewed: March 2015 
Revised: March 2015 


Benefit Application
Benefit determinations are based on the applicable contract language in effect at the time the services were rendered. Exclusions, limitations or exceptions may apply. Benefits may vary based on contract, and individual member benefits must be verified. Wellmark determines medical necessity only if the benefit exists and no contract exclusions are applicable. This medical policy may not apply to FEP. Benefits are determined by the Federal Employee Program.

This Medical Policy document describes the status of medical technology at the time the document was developed. Since that time, new technology may have emerged or new medical literature may have been published. This Medical Policy will be reviewed regularly and be updated as scientific and medical literature becomes available.


Description: 

Speech therapy involves the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of communication impairments and swallowing disorders. Speech-language pathologists (sometimes informally referred to as speech therapists) evaluate and treat disorders and impairments resulting from illness, trauma, disease, or congenital anomaly including: speech articulation, apraxia, and phonological disorders; voice disorders; oral pharyngeal dysfunction and related disorders; and cognitive, language, and communication disorders.

 

The speech therapy services provided are intended to cover only episodes of therapy for situations where there must be a reasonable expectation that a patient’s condition will improve significantly in a reasonable and generally predictable period of time.

 

The use of devices such as iPads, computers, etc. not manufactured specifically for the use of speech and language therapy would not be considered a payable benefit.


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Prior Approval: 

 

Prior approval is required. Submit a prior approval now.


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Policy: 

Speech therapy services may be considered medically necessary when they are related to a specific injury, illness, impairment, or disease and involve the mechanics of phonation or deglutition and meet all of the following criteria:

  • Are performed to meet the functional needs of a patient who has a physical disability or a communication disability or swallowing disorder due to illness, disease, injury, congenital anomaly, or prior therapeutic intervention.
  • Are performed to meet a specific diagnosis-related goal for a patient who has the potential to achieve measurable improvement in a generally predictable period of time.
  • Require the judgment, knowledge, and skills of a qualified provider of speech therapy services, i.e. speech pathologist, speech-language pathologist, or speech clinician because of the complexity and sophistication of the therapy and the physical condition of the patient.

Indications for which speech therapy services may be considered medically necessary include, but may not be limited to:

  • Brain injury or insult due to cerebrovascular accident or trauma
  • Structural anomalies related to cleft palate and cleft lip
  • Neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy
  • Dysphagia
  • Pervasive development disorders including but not limited to:
    • Autism spectrum disorders
    • Asperger syndrome
    • Childhood disintegrative disorder (also known as Heller syndrome)
    • Rett syndrome
  • Paradoxical vocal cord disorder
  • Vocal cord nodules 
  • Sensorineural hearing loss
  • Dysfunction occurring as a result of a therapeutic process such as vocal cord surgery, laryngectomy, radiation therapy, or ototoxic medication
  • Developmental Apraxia of Speech (oral motor apraxia) 

 

 

Note: Prior approval is not needed for the initial speech therapist's evaluation.

 

Recommended Documentation for Prior Approval

Minimum acceptable documentation, in the form of a speech language evaluation with short and long-term goals, will include the following:

  • Results from standardized testing that measures overall receptive and expressive language, using standard scores or age equivalencies for pediatric assessments and determinations of deficits in adult assessments as applicable.
  • Results from standardized testing that measures articulation, using standard scores or age equivalencies and including a description of any noticeable error patterns and a description of stimulability for correct production of error sounds.
  • Language sample including a Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) and a description of the types of words used by the patient in conversational language.
  • For patients with Developmental Apraxia of Speech (oral motor apraxia), also include results from diadochokinetic testing (maximum repetition test) and oral motor examination (including ROM, strength, impaired coordination, groping and oral management of food).

Children older than two years must show a minimum of 12 months difference between their chronological age and their age equivalency on standardized tests in any one language area, or the standard score must fall at least one standard deviation below the normal range as designated by the standardized instrument utilized.

 

Language tests that measure only a specific area, such as receptive vocabulary may be included but only as an additional measure to quantify areas of strength and weakness.

 

The following treatment modalities have not been shown to be effective to the requisite degree of scientific validity and are considered investigational for treatment of dysphagia:

  • Deep Pharyngeal Neuromuscular Therapy (DPNS)
  • Vita-Stim and similar non-specific electrical stimulation methods
  • Any therapy involving digital stimulation of the mouth, tongue or pharynx in patient not having a specifically diagnosed neuromuscular disorder specifically and adversely effecting swallowing.


Speech therapy is considered not medically necessary for the following conditions or circumstances, including but not limited to:

  • For children with dysfluency not related to conditions described above
  • For developmental articulation errors that are self-correcting
  • As a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, chronic disorders of memory and/or orientation
  • As a treatment for psychoneurotic or psychotic conditions
  • As a treatment of stuttering or stammering not related to an underlying medical condition
  • As a treatment for functional dysphonia not related to an underlying medical condition
  • Social communication impairments not related to an underlying medical condition
  • When the only goal of treatment is the instruction of others, professional or non-professional, in the patient's speech therapy program
  • Collaboration with other professionals or with other community resources
  • As instruction in English phrases when the patient's primary language is other than English
  • Maintenance therapy programs including drills, techniques, and exercises that preserve the present level of function and prevent regression of function. Maintenance begins when the therapeutic goals of a treatment plan have been achieved.
  • When no further functional progress is apparent or expected to occur
  • Duplicate therapy when the patient is receiving both speech and occupational therapy; these therapies should provide different treatments and not duplicate the same treatment.


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Procedure Codes and Billing Guidelines: 

To report provider services, use appropriate CPT* codes, Modifiers, Alpha Numeric (HCPCS level 2) codes, revenue codes, and/or ICD-9 CM diagnostic codes.

  • 92507 treatment of speech, language, voice, communication, and/or auditory processing disorder individual
  • 92508 treatment of speech, language, voice, communication, and/or auditory processing disorder group, two or more individuals
  • S9152 Speech therapy, re-evaluation 

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Selected References: 

  • Shriberg LD, Friel-Patti S, Flipsen P Jr., Brown RL. Otitis media, fluctuant hearing loss, and speech-language outcomes: a preliminary structural equation model. J Speech Lang Hearing Res 2000 Feb;43(1):100-20.
  • McCormick DP, Baldwin CD, Klecan-Akar JS, Swank PR, Johnson DL. Association of early bilateral middle ear effusion with language at age 5 years. Ambul Pediatr. 2001 Mar-Apr;1(2):87-89.
  • Johnson DL, Swank PR, Owen MJ, Baldwin CD, Howie VM, McCormick DP. Effects of early middle ear effusion on child intelligence at three, five, and seven years of age. J Pediatr. Psychol. 2000 Jan-Feb;25(1):5-13.
  • Abraham SS, Wallace IF, Gravel JS. Early otitis media and phonological development at age 2 years. Laryngoscope. 1996 Jun;106(6):727-32.
  • Paradise JL, Dollaghan CA, Campbell TF, et al. Otitis media and tympanostomy tube insertion during the first three years of life: developmental outcomes at the age of four years. Pediatrics. 2003 Aud;112(2):265-77.
  • Hyter Y, Henry J, Atchison B, SLoane M, Black-Pond C. Children affected by trauma and alcohol exposure: A profile of the Southwestern Michigan Children's Trauma Assessment Center. The ASHA Leader, 2003 Nov:6-7,14.
  • Robey RR. The efficacy of treatment for aphasic persons: a meta-analysis. Brain and Language 1994; 46:582-608.
  • Morris H, Ozanne A. Phonetic, phonological, and language skills of children with a cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2003 Sep;40(5):460-70.
  • Goorhuis-Brouwer SM, Knijff WA. Language disorders in young children: when is speech therapy recommended? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003 May; 67(5):525-9.
  • Law J, Garrett A, Nye C. Speech and language therapy interventions for children with primary speech and language delay and disorder. Cochrane Database Rev. 2003;(3):CD004110.
  • Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR). Criteria for determining disability in speech-language disorders. Updated 2004 Aug. Available at URL address:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat1.chapter.76986
  • American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. Parameters for evaluation and treatment ofpatients with cleft lip/palate or other craniofacial anomalies. Chapel Hill (NC): American CleftPalate-Craniofacial Association; 2000 Apr.Reviewed2005.
  • Kelly H, Brady MC, Enderby P. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following stroke. Cochrane Data base Syst Rev. 2010 May 12; 5: CD000425.
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Typical speech and language development. Available at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development
  • National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Speech and language impairments. Available at: http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/speechlanguage

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Policy History: 

 

Date                      Reason                               Action

June 2011             Annual review                   Policy renewed

April 2012            Annual review                   Policy renewed

August 2012         Interim review                   Policy revised

April 2013            Annual review                   Policy renewed

March 2014          Annual review                   Policy renewed

March 2015          Annual review                   Policy revised


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Wellmark medical policies address the complex issue of technology assessment of new and emerging treatments, devices, drugs, etc.   They are developed to assist in administering plan benefits and constitute neither offers of coverage nor medical advice. Wellmark medical policies contain only a partial, general description of plan or program benefits and do not constitute a contract. Wellmark does not provide health care services and, therefore, cannot guarantee any results or outcomes. Participating providers are independent contractors in private practice and are neither employees nor agents of Wellmark or its affiliates. Treating providers are solely responsible for medical advice and treatment of members. Our medical policies may be updated and therefore are subject to change without notice.

*Current Procedural Terminology © 2012 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

Contact Information
New information or technology that would be relevant for Wellmark to consider when this policy is next reviewed may be submitted to:
  Wellmark Blue Cross and Blue Shield
  Medical Policy Analyst
  P.O. Box 9232
  Des Moines, IA 50306-9232
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Wellmark Blue Cross and Blue Shield is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association doing business in Iowa and South Dakota.
 
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